Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Frederick Douglass and His House on Cedar Hill

Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have the exact measure of the injustice and wrong which will be imposed on them.

Frederick Douglass



Frederick Douglass' was a 19th century American hero, but his story still resonates with our times. He was a social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, husband, father, suffragist, statesman, and advisor to presidents. He was a man of his times, and at the same time, a man ahead of his times, espousing both the cause of abolition as well as women's rights and suffragism.



Douglass believed in the equality of all peoples, whether black, female, Native American, or recent immigrant. He also espoused dialogue and believed in the importance of making alliances across racial and ideological divides. Most of all, he believed in the American Constitution. When radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union With Slaveholders" criticized Douglass' willingness to dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied, "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong."

Douglass' study and his 2000 books.


Born into slavery in Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Talbot County, MD in probably 1818. He later chose to celebrate his birthday on February 14. When he was 7 or 8, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld, who sent him to serve Thomas' brother Hugh Auld in Baltimore.



When Douglass was about 12, Hugh Auld's wife Sophia started teaching him the alphabet. Douglass described her as a kind and tender-hearted woman, who treated him "as she supposed one human being ought to treat another." Hugh Auld quickly stopped his wife's reading lessons, feeling that literacy would encourage Frederick -- and other slaves -- to desire freedom. Even at so young an age, Douglass realized that education was imperative for escaping from slavery, and continued, secretly, to teach himself how to read and write. He later often said, "knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom."

A guest bedroom.


On September 3, 1838, Douglass successfully escaped by boarding a train in Baltimore dressed in a sailor's uniform provided to him by his love and future wife, Anna Murray, who was a free woman. She also gave him part of her savings to cover his travel costs, he carried identification papers that he had obtained from a free black seaman. Via the train and steam boat, he made his way to Philadelphia, and freedom before continuing to the safe house of noted abolitionist David Ruggles in New York City. Murray soon joined him, and they were married on September 15, 1838, by a black Presbyterian minister, just 11 days after his arrival in New York. Eventually the couple settled in New Bedford, MA, and then Douglass came to the attention of the abolitionists in the area. He soon started a public speaking tour, and wrote his first autobiography in 1845 which quickly became a best seller of its time.

Another guest bedroom. (With 20+ grandchildren, he needed a lot of guest rooms!)


Douglass' supporters worried that the publicity from his book would draw the attention of his ex-owner, Hugh Auld, who might try to get his "property" back, and urged Douglass to travel to England and Ireland. Douglass spent two years in Ireland and Britain, where he gave many lectures in churches and chapels. His draw was such that some facilities were "crowded to suffocation." Sales from his book and donations from his supporters raised money to purchase his freedom from Auld. Astoundingly, many years later, he would visit Auld on his deathbed, speaking gently to the dying man, and bringing closure to himself.

Douglass' bedroom.


In 1877, Douglass purchased Cedar Hill, a lovely Victorian mansion overlooking the Anacostia River, and that's where he spent most of his last years, and eventually died. On February 20, 1895, Douglass attended a meeting of the National Council of Women in Washington, D.C. During that meeting, he was brought to the platform and received a standing ovation. Shortly after he returned home, after having a luncheon, Frederick Douglass hurried out on his way to another meeting, but died of a massive heart attack or stroke, collapsing in his front hallway.

Anna's bedroom (Anna was his first wife and the one who funded Douglass' escape from slavery.)


Like many others apparently -- the tours quickly get filled to capacity -- I went in search of Frederick Douglass as a result of the president's recent comments about Douglass for Black History Month. I searched on "Frederick Douglass historic site" hoping that something nearby would pop up, and was rewarded with the discovery that his last home, Cedar Hill, is a house museum/national historic site in southeast D.C. Douglass's legacy is preserved at Cedar Hill, where he lived his last 17 years.

During the house tour, the docents reveal various aspects of Douglass' life and character. They point out his favorite chairs, how he would go out to a stone building in the back called the "Growlry" to think and write, discuss life in the late 19th century, and of course his legacy. They finally note that Douglass' second wife fought to preserve his legacy as well as Cedar Hill as a house museum dedicated to Frederick Douglass' life and incredible accomplishments.

Several years after Anna died, Douglass wed his second wife, Helene Pitts, a white abolitionist and feminist.
His family (and hers) objected , but they lived very happily for his remaining years. He responded to the
criticisms by noting that his marriage had been to someone the color of his mother and his second, to someone the
color of his father, referring to the fact that the man on whose plantation he'd  been born had probably been his father.



Know before you go: Go online to the website to reserve tickets (for which there is a $1.50 fee); tours fill up quickly since POTUS' recent comments, so don't wait until the morning of the day you want to go to reserve your spots, because they won't be there!

Getting there: 1411 W Street, SE, Washington, DC; there is off-street parking available in front of the visitor's center.

Hours: The visitor center and grounds are open daily, except for January 1, Thanksgiving, and December 25: April through October - 9 am to 5 pm; November through March - 9 am to 4:30 pm. The historic house is open only at scheduled times for guided tours. Rangers guide tours every day, except for January 1, Thanksgiving, and December 25.

Website: https://www.nps.gov/frdo/index.htm

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Tuesday, February 7, 2017

Understanding Andy Warhol

Actually, I don't think it's entirely possible to understand Andy Warhol, but you can certainly enhance and enlarge your appreciation of this iconic American 20th century artist's work by visiting a museum dedicated to his artwork in Pittsburgh.

Nosepicker 1: Why Pick on Me (originally titled The Lord Gave Me My Face but
I Can Pick My Own Nose), 1948. tempora and ink on Masonite
When Warhol's name is mentioned, immediately his iconic pop-culture paintings come to mind: Campbell's Soup Cans and his celebrity paintings of Marilyn Monroe and Elvis Presley. It's wonderful to see them in person. But exploring the museum's collection of some 900 paintings reveals additional aspects of Warhol's career and voice, making a visit to the Andy Warhol Museum, which mission is simply to be "the global keeper of Andy Warhol's legacy" an all-but-obligatory stop during any visit to Pittsburgh --and quite possibly reason enough to visit Pittsburgh, although the city and region have many other day trip destinations well worth exploring.

Statue of Liberty, 1962. Silkscreen ink and spray paint.
In addition to his paintings and prints, the collection features wallpaper and books by Warhol, covering the entire range of his work from all periods, and includes student work from the 1940s; 1950s drawings, commercial illustrations and sketchbooks; 1960s pop paintings of consumer products (Campbell's Soup Cans), celebrities (Liz, Jackie, Marilyn, Elvis), Disasters and Electric Chairs; portrait paintings (Mao), Skull paintings and the abstract Oxidations from the 1970s; and works from the 1980s such as The Last Supper, Raphael I-6.99 and collaborative paintings made with younger artists such as Jean-Michel Basquiat and Francesco Clemente.

Three Coke Bottles, 1962. Silkscreen ink and graphite on linen. Andy Warhol once said,
"What's great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest
consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest. ... A Coke is a Coke, and no
amount of money can get you a better Coke."
I found the explanation of Warhol's early printing and coloring method -- the blotted line technique -- interesting, and particularly enjoyed seeing some of his earliest work. I loved the colorful images -- his love and use of color, some of it outrageously bright -- continued throughout his career.

High Heel Shoe, ca 1955. Ink and Dr. Martin's Aniline dye on Strathmore paper.


Andy Warhol was born Andrew Warhola on August 6, 1928, in a two-room row house apartment in Pittsburgh. Devout Byzantine Catholics, the family attended mass regularly and observed the traditions of their Eastern European heritage. Warhol’s father, a laborer, moved his family to a brick home on Dawson Street in 1934. Warhol attended the nearby Holmes School and took free art classes at Carnegie Institute (now The Carnegie Museum of Art). Warhol later attended Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) from 1945 to 1949, earning a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Pictorial Design with the goal of becoming a commercial illustrator. Soon after graduating, Warhol moved to New York City to pursue a career as a commercial artist.

Flowers, 1970. Screen print on paper.


In the late 1950s, Warhol began to devote more energy to painting. He made his first pop-culture paintings, which he based on comics and ads, in 1961. The following year marked the beginning of Warhol’s celebrity. He debuted his famous Campbell’s Soup Can series, which caused a sensation in the art world. Shortly thereafter he began a sequence of movie star portraits.

Three Marilyns, 1962. Acrylic, silkscreen ink, and graphite on linen.


Throughout the 1970s Warhol frequently socialized with celebrities such as Jackie Kennedy Onassis and Truman Capote, both of whom had been important early subjects in his art. Celebrity portraits developed into a significant aspect of his career and a main source of income.

Ai Weiwei: Neolithic Pottery with Coca-Cola Logo, 2007. Metallic paint, earthenware jar.
There also was an exhibit of another titan of modern art in the same space. The “Andy Warhol | Ai Weiwei” exhibit in the Warhol Museum accentuates the ties between these two artists and provides a deeper and more thorough examination of the intimacy they share with pop culture. Weiwei’s work is a natural evolution of the Pop Art movement that Warhol spearheaded in the 60s and 70s. It finds the thread of democratization of art that was the dominating themes of modern art 50 years ago and updates it.

Ai Weiwei: Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn, 2015. Lego blocks (!!)


In all, you emerge from this must-see museum with a greater understanding of Warhol's genius, beyond his iconic Campbell's Soup Cans paintings, although you ultimately are left with the question, is it ever really possible to understand Andy Warhol?

Getting there: 117 Sandusky Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15212-5890

Hours: Closed Mondays. Open Saturday, Sunday, Tuesday - Thursday 10 a.m. - 5 p.m., Friday 10 a.m. - 10 p.m. Check website for holiday schedules.

Website: http://www.warhol.org/


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Elvis 11 Times [Studio Type], 1963. (7 shown here) Silkscreen ink and silver paint on linen.

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Winter Walk in Swallow Falls State Park

When the weather outside is frightful,
A walk in the park can be delightful! 

I was hoping for both snow and frozen water falls, but I was disappointed by balmy 40-degree days over the Christmas holidays. My family and I had rented a cabin, right on the shores of Deep Creek Lake. Plans included going sleigh riding, snow-shoeing, and snow-mobiling, even dog sledding.

The warm weather thwarted those plans. Instead, we enjoyed a winter walk in Swallow Falls State Park, which I've blogged about before. Swallow Falls State Park is located on the west bank of the Youghiogheny River, not far from Oakland. In fact, just 60 miles downstream on the Youghiogheny is the fabulous, and possibly my favorite, Cucumber Falls, near Ohiopyle and its namesake falls which provided content for one of the first posts of the Mid-Atlantic Day Trips Blog!

Muddy Creek Falls


The only officially designated Wild and Scenic River, the Youghiogheny acts as a watershed from the western slope of the Appalachian Mountains and encompasses approximately 397 miles in Maryland. Within Swallow Falls State Park, the river offers dramatic drops in elevation complete with falls, rapids and dense forestation.

The upper Swallow Falls.


Without the distraction of those silly colorful autumn deciduous tree leaves, I focused more on the lovely towering hemlocks, as well as other aspects of a forest in the winter.




The oldest grove of white pine and eastern hemlock in Maryland resides in Swallow Falls State Park. The tall hemlocks, some more than 300 years old, tower over park visitors and remind them of medieval European forestry.

Detail in the rock right next to upper Swallow Falls.


This hike is rewarding, because there are several falls along a fairly short trail: Swallow Falls, Muddy Creek Falls, and Toliver Falls. There are some steps leading down to both Swallow Falls and Muddy Creek Falls, but it's not terribly strenuous. Muddy Creek Falls and Swallow Falls are the main attractions at Swallow Falls State Park, but Tolliver Falls is just as rewarding.

Tolliver Falls. Although only 5-feet high, in warmer weather, it makes a nice wading pool.


Muddy Creek is a crashing 53-foot waterfall and is the reason most visitors go to the state park. Winter rain fall engorged it, making it spectacular. As with elsewhere in the park, tall hemlocks dominate the Canyon Creek Trail travels through. The 1 1/4-mile long trail guides hikers between Muddy Creek Falls and the two parts (aptly named Upper and Lower) of Swallow Falls.

Adventurous kayakers just after they passed through the lower Swallow Falls. They passed through
the upper Swallow Falls just before we got there -- we weren't fast enough to see them close by.


Getting there: 222 Herrington Ln, Oakland, MD 21550

Hours: Dawn to dusk

Dogs: Perfect for your pooch!!

Website: http://dnr2.maryland.gov/publiclands/Pages/western/swallowfalls.aspx



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Tuesday, January 24, 2017

The Civil War Battle Nobody's Heard Of

Almost everyone's heard of the Battle of Gettysburg. But almost nobody has heard of the Battle of Monterey Pass, which took place immediately following the Battle of Gettysburg, as the Confederate troops retreated back into Maryland and across the Potomac into the relative safety of Virginia.

The Battle of Monterey Pass was fought along a mountain ridge, in a blinding thunderstorm, during the middle of the night on July 4, just one day after the close of the battle of Gettysburg.



Because Pennsylvania only had a few battles, this battle is also commemorated as Pennsylvania's second largest.

Unlike the more famous Antietam and Gettysburg, this battle wasn't fought on fairly level farm fields, with opposing sides confronting each other from strategically placed battle lines. This battle was fought by weary, battle-exhausted troops strung out over narrow roads through rugged countryside in mountain passes. Ravines on one side and cliffs on the other often limited their movement., and played a part of the battle.



Following the devastating defeat at Gettysburg, Confederate Major General Robert E. Lee ordered the retreat of the Confederate troops from Gettysburg in the early hours of July 4, 1863.

By that afternoon, the Confederate Army began their march through South Mountain. During the aftermath of the battle, the Confederate army marched past Waynesboro through Monterey Pass, and many thousands of soldiers bivouacked here before continuing their march to the Potomac River at Williamsport and Falling Waters, MD. The soldiers were so weary that some literally were sleepwalking while they trudged along. 

Just 7 miles to the east of Monterey Pass, Union General Judson Kilpatrick's cavalry division came into Emmitsburg, MD. Some famous names formed part of Kilpatrick's cavalry division, including General George Custer, who led a brigade. They were ordered to attack the Confederate wagon train that was moving through South Mountain. 

The Hawley Memorial Church now stands where the battle began, in what is now Blue Ridge Summit.


The 5th Michigan was the first of Kilpatrick's cavalry division to climb the mountain.toward Monterey Pass. They'd learned of the Confederate presence there when a local resident, Charles H. Buhrman, learned of the Confederate retreat at Monterey Pass as well as the capture of several local citizens. He had ridden toward Emmitsburg until he encountered one of Custer's scouts.



The Confederates, as they headed through Monterey Pass, deployed one cannon to guard the pass, while the rest headed west toward the safety of Williamsport and Potomac River. A 9-mile long wagon train of wounded soldiers, supplies, and livestock extended from Fairfield, PA, through Monterey Pass into Maryland. The Union cavalry didn't get to the foot of South Mountain until dusk, and they didn't encounter the Confederates until midnight.


At Pen-Mar Park, I spotted a lovely male nuthatch, who paused a moment to stare at my intrusion into the closed park.


At midnight, in a tremendous thunderstorm and driving rain, the Union cavalry were surprised and blinded by cannon fire from the Confederates near Monterey Pass, at what is now Blue Ridge Summit; an episcopal church, built in the 1870s, now sits on the site. The Confederates drove the Union troops back, but eventually General Custer's brigade reorganized and advanced toward the summit. For the next several hours in the rain and darkness, the opposing forces engaged in some of the most confusing and chaotic fighting of the Civil War. In some instances, the soldiers could only tell where the enemy was by flashes from their guns, or when the cannon or lightning illuminated their positions.

The driving tour takes you up to Pen-Mar Park, which offers an impressive panoramic view of the Cumberland Valley, below. The Appalachian Trail passes through Pen-Mar Park.


Eventually Custer and his troops prevailed, and began storming through the long line of wagons, overturning many wagons and setting fire to others. However, Kilpatrick had divided his brigades, and eventually withdrew from Monterey Pass, so Custer's successes were for naught.

Normally not a fan of vandalism, it seems that colorful graffiti is a tradition at High Rock. The spraypainted colors echo the exuberant colors and hues in the Cumberland Valley, below.
The battle eventually spilled into Maryland, southwest of Monterey Pass during the early morning hours of July 5th, making it the only battle to be fought on both sides of the Mason Dixon Line. Taking up where he had left off at Monterey Pass, Kilpatrick resumed the battle in Ringold, MD, after some of his units destroyed Confederate wagons and supplies at Leitersburg, a few miles away. Eventually, though, Kilpatrick withdraws to Smithsburg, and then further still to Boonsboro, giving up the fight entirely and allowing the Lee's army to retreat to Virginia.

High Rock is  located near the highest point of South Mountain in Maryland. This area was used by Union cavalry just after the Confederate Army re-entered Maryland marching toward Williamsport. At High Rock you can see three major towns that are important to the story of the Confederate retreat after Gettysburg: Smithsburg to the extreme left, Ringgold in the center, and Waynesboro to the right. Often you can see hang gliders launching from these rocks!
The only way to try to understand this battle is to take the driving tour -- plan on dedicating at least a couple of hours to do so. Most of the driving tour takes you past private property. It covers some steep terrain, and winding roads, but brings you past some of Pennsylvania's and Maryland's loveliest countryside. The tour takes you through the site where the battle began -- now there's a quaint church on the site, built well after the Civil War. But then it follows the Confederate wagon train, as well as the site where Union troops burned the Confederate wagons they'd captured.

Taken from Harbaugh Church, where Union troops burned captured Confederate wagons, looking up to the South Mountain Ridge.


Know Before You Go: Following the driving tour directions can be difficult without a navigator. Don't go alone!

Websites: http://www.montereypassbattlefield.org/

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Sunday, January 22, 2017

Six Great Romantic Dates for Valentine's Day

It's not to early to start planning that special date for your special someone!

Romantic dinners are great, but truly impress your special someone with a creative idea to show how much you love to be with them! Although I believe any activity which you and your special someone are doing together could easily be a romantic date, below are my topic suggestions for spending some time together!


A day at the zoo -- the Smithsonian National Zoo, to be exact. Not only is it romantic, but the price is right: free. If you go with your special other in February, then it'll be chilly. Get yourself some hot chocolate at one of the food stands. Dress warmly, walk close to each other, and snuggle as you watch the cute animals, which will be very frisky in the cooler weather!



Create your own heart! Commemorate your love on a special Valentine's date to blow your own glass heart, at Art of Fire Glass Studio. You may choose from basic red, or any other color! During this experience you'll enjoy an up-close, customized introduction to glass-blowing and work with an experienced glass artist to create your own special heart. Call ahead to make an appointment!





















Spend a night at a gorgeous haunted inn in a quaint, historic town... take your pick: the Logan Inn in New Hope, PA or Farnsworth House Inn in Gettysburg.


Both the Logan Inn and Farnsworth House Inns are in the heart of lovely little towns that offer both excellent restaurants (including going on the Savor Gettysburg restaurant tour) and boutiques to browse in, plus plenty of other great things to do, from touring Revolutionary War battlefields (New Hope) and Civil War battlefields (click here and here for more details on different ways to experience the battlefields) in Gettysburg to touring historic homes (Parry Mansion in New Hope, Shriver House or the Eisenhower Farm in Gettysburg).



Take your Romance on the Rails -- a tasty dinner, a vintage setting in an old timey rail dining car, beautiful mountain scenery through the windows... I don't need to say more.



My top pick for a romantic evening is to go howl with the wolves! On the full moon each month, the Wolf Sanctuary of PA holds a Howl with the Wolves bonfire. The Full Moon tour event is held on the Saturday evening closest to the full moon and features a bonfire, live entertainment, and self-guided tours. Guides will be stationed at each pack to provide information and answer questions throughout the evening. Bring a folding chair and blanket, and marshmallows or hot dogs to roast on the bonfire as well as refreshments (though alcohol is not permitted).





























For other day trip destinations, go to the Blog's Find a Great Place to Day Trip.

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Wednesday, January 18, 2017

I Like Ike: Exploring the Eisenhower Farm in Gettysburg

"...above all else, a good leader needs integrity--
a deeply ingrained honor, honesty and decency."

-- Dwight D. Eisenhoer, 17 October 1961

It was fitting that I traveled on I-70 to get to U.S. 15 to go to Gettysburg to visit the Eisenhower Farm, in Gettysburg, PA. Among Dwight D Eisenhower's many accomplishments as our nation's 34th president was launching the Interstate Highway System. As a dedicated daytripper and frequent user of these roads, I am chronically grateful to him.



Eisenhower was an American politician who served as President of the United States between 1953 and 1961. He was a five-star general in the U.S. Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO.

Eisenhower's two terms saw considerable economic prosperity. He was voted Gallup's most admired man 12 times, and achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office.

In fact, Eisenhower is now deemed to be one of the greatest U.S. Presidents. He was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. He also launched the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), established strong science education via the National Defense Education Act, and encouraged peaceful use of nuclear power via amendments to the Atomic Energy Act.



The Eisenhower National Historic Site, adjacent to the Gettysburg Battlefield, was his home and farm, serving as a weekend retreat and a meeting place for world leaders. With its peaceful setting and view of South Mountain, it was a much needed respite from Washington and a backdrop for efforts to reduce Cold War tensions.



When you tour the home, you get to see every room, from the sun porch where the President entertained world leaders, painted, and watched television to the First Lady's entirely pink bathroom.



Their formal living room, stunning and elegant, reflects the public stature of the Eisenhowers, showcasing gifts they'd received from heads of state and friends alike. Of note, a silk Tabriz rug from the Shah of Iran, as well as a marble fireplace, removed from the White House in 1873 by President Grant. A man with simpler tastes, Eisenhower considered the room to be "too stuffy."

The master bedroom.
























Touring the house, you feel as if the Eisenhowers just stepped away for a few moments. The rooms are all warm and inviting. Pink was Mamie's favorite color, and most of the rooms are decorated in shades of pink.



Touring the farm brings to life Eisenhower's devotion to his Black Angus cattle. He maintained a successful cattle enterprise -- aptly named Eisenhower Farms -- for 15 years. His show cattle quickly gained recognition in the Angus-raising community, winning grand championships at the Pennsylvania State Farm Show as well as blue ribbons from major competitions across the United States. Ironically, the day we visited, we saw nary a cow -- they were all in fields away from the house!



Eisenhower’s association with the town and battlefield of Gettysburg began in spring 1915 when, as a cadet at the US Military Academy at West Point, he visited with his class to study the battle. Three years later during WW I, Capt. Eisenhower found himself back in Gettysburg with his wife Mamie and their first son. Despite his hope for duty overseas, he had been appointed commander of Camp Colt, the US Army Tank Corps Training Center located on the fields of Pickett’s Charge. At war’s end Eisenhower left Gettysburg for new assignments, and it wasn't until after he retired that he returned again. After World War II, while president of Columbia University, the General and his wife returned to Gettysburg to search for a retirement home. In 1950, fondly recalling Camp Colt days, they bought the 189 acre Reddy farm adjoining the Gettysburg Battlefield.



During his first term as President, he and Mamie renovated their Gettysburg home. Much of the original house was not sound and had to be torn down. The construction was complete by March 1955 and the Eisenhowers began to visit on weekends and holidays. In 1961, after 45 years service to their country, General and Mrs. Eisenhower retired to their Gettysburg Farm. For the next eight years the Eisenhowers led an active life.

In 1967 the Eisenhowers donated the Gettysburg farm to the National Park Service.



Getting there: Go to the Gettysburg Battlefield Visitor Center to purchase tickets to the Eisenhower Farm and to catch the shuttle there. The Gettysburg Battlefield Visitor Center is located at 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, PA 17325

Dogs: No

Hours: Shuttle bus departure times from the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum & Visitor Center vary depending on season. 2016 Winter Season: January 1 - March 25; during the winter season there are days that the site is closed or has a delayed opening due to inclement weather. Call 717-334-1124 for the latest information.

Website: https://www.nps.gov/eise/index.htm

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